Spelling Scope and Sequence, Problem Words

Spelling Standard II, Advanced Spelling

Lesson 230, Problem Words

Understanding that homophones are words that are spelled differently and have different meanings but sound alike, such as sight and site

Understanding that homonyms are words that are spelled the same and sound the same but have different meanings, such as bill (a duck’s beak) and bill (a check needing to be paid)

Understanding that homographs are words that are spelled the same but sound differently and have different meanings, such as sewer (a person who sews) and sewer (wastewater pipe)

Understanding that context is the sentence surrounding a word that helps give it meaning

Understanding that most nouns in English are made plural by adding s or es as a suffix, such as race, races and box, boxes.

Knowing that there are exceptions to the standard plural rules (add -s or add -es): child, children; ox, oxen; man, men; woman, women; foot, feet; goose, geese; shelf, shelves; leaf, leaves

Knowing that words borrowed from foreign languages often have strange plural forms.

Understanding that for Greek words ending in –us it is necessary to change the –us to -i, such as: cactus, cacti; radius, radii; octopus, octopi; nucleus, nuclei; hippopotamus, hippopotami

Knowing that for Latin words ending in –sis it is necessary to change the –sis to –ses, such as: analysis, analyses; thesis, theses; diagnosis, diagnoses; hypothesis, hypotheses; crisis, crises

Knowing that some words are often used in their plural form, and their singular form is sometimes unknown, such as: graffito, graffiti; paparazzo, paparazzi; medium, media; datum, data; bacterium, bacteria

Knowing that a singular noun is made possessive by adding an apostrophe and an s, such as the lifeguard’s boat or Sandra’s parakeet

Knowing that all that is needed for plural words that end in s is an apostrophe, such as the girls’ basketball team or the dogs’ barking

 

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